Estonia, a country in Northern Europe, borders the Baltic Sea and Gulf of Finland. Including more than 1,500 islands, its diverse terrain spans rocky beaches, old-growth forest and many lakes. Formerly part of the Soviet Union, it’s dotted with castles, churches and hilltop fortresses. The capital, Tallinn, is known for its preserved Old Town, museums and the 314m-high Tallinn TV Tower, which has an observation deck.
Estonia, country in northeastern Europe, the northernmost of the three Baltic states. Estonia’s area includes some 1,500 islands and islets; the two largest of these islands, Saaremaa and Hiiumaa, are off mainland Estonia’s west coast.
Estonia has been dominated by foreign powers through much of its history. In 1940 it was incorporated into the U.S.S.R. as one of its constituent republics. Estonia remained a Soviet republic until 1991, when, along with the other Baltic states, it declared its independence. The Soviet Union recognized independence for Estonia and the other Baltic states on September 6, 1991, and United Nations membership followed shortly thereafter. Estonia set about transforming its government into a parliamentary democracy and reorienting its economy toward market capitalism. It sought integration with greater Europe and in 2004 joined the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) and the European Union (EU).
The temperate and humid climate of Estonia differs sharply from the climates of regions to the east (in Russia) at the same latitude. The country lies in the path of air masses borne by cyclonic winds that originate in the North Atlantic Ocean and carry warm air in winter and cool air in summer. The northern and western coastal areas tend to be milder than the country’s inland regions, while the eastern and southeastern regions tend to have a continental climate. The mean temperature is 17 to 23 °F (−8 to −5 °C) in January and 61 to 63 °F (16 to 17 °C) in July. Annual precipitation is about 24 to 28 inches (600 to 700 mm), which, coupled with negligible evaporation and low relief, leads to waterlogging. The Estonian climate is generally favourable for agriculture.
Estonian Maritime Museum
Estonian Open Air Museum
Town Hall Square
Kumu Art Museum
Art from before World War II is also exhibited on the third floor, and on the fourth, an exhibition of works from the Soviet occupation period is on display. On the museum’s fifth floor, find a modern art gallery and exhibitions of contemporary art from Estonia as well as other countries. Each year, 11 or 12 rotating exhibits are displayed, half of which come from Estonia, while the other half is made up of international pieces. The museum also has a 250-seat auditorium for film programs, performances, concerts, seminars and conferences; an educational center with programs and courses for different age groups; and a library with the widest collection of art literature in Estonia